Switching and Averaging Models of a Bidirectional, Half-Bridge Based DC-DC converter with Load Distribution


  • Andrea Reindl
  • Andreas Lang
  • Michael Niemetz
  • Hans Meier




Bidirectional DC/DC Converter, Averaging Model, Switching Model, Computational Effort, Modelica, Half Bridge, Circuit Averaging


Batteries are used in numerous applications such as mobile devices, electric vehicles, home storage systems and islanded microgrids. Bidirectional DC-DC converters are vital for the integration of batteries, for the power conversion during (dis)charge and the battery management. Modeling of these is helpful, especially for the design of larger, more complex systems consisting of multiple DC-DC converters in parallel. Due to the high switching frequencies, the simulation of DC-DC converters is associated with increased computational time and effort. In this paper, three models of different complexity and accuracy are proposed for a bidirectional DC-DC converter consisting of two phase-shifted half-bridges. Two switching models, which differ mainly in the way the mosfets are driven, account for the individual switching operations and exhibit high accuracy. An averaging model replaces the switching elements with current and voltage sources providing the mean values. It is particularly suitable for multiple components and longer simulation durations. The dynamic behavior of the models is analyzed using the step responses of the load current. For validation, these are compared with the theoretical transfer function. The three models are analyzed comparatively in terms of computational time and effort. The calculation time of the averaging model has been reduced by two thirds compared to the strictly complementary switching model and by 96% relative to the model with diode emulation mode. The averaging model requires only one third of the computation time of the complementary switching model and only 3.5% of that of the model with diode emulation. Recommendations for the use of the models are given and a possible use case is shown. Two parallel connected DC-DC converters with load current sharing between them are simulated using the averaging model.