Spray drop size characterization in an external-mixing bluff-body atomizer based on acoustics and Multivariate Analysis


  • Raghav Sikka
  • Maths Halstensen
  • Joachim Lundberg




Multivariate Regression, Acoustic Chemometrics, Principal Component Analysis, Twin-fluid Spray, Mean droplet size


Air-assist atomizers have been widely used in various applications such as the aerospace industry, internal combustion engines, molten metal, food processing, etc. The mean drop size for these atomizers was obtained through the Shadowgraph imaging technique. This study aims to assess the feasibility of the acoustic chemometrics approach for classifying the atomizer types and predicting the mean drop size, such as Sauter mean diameter (SMD), for a two-phase spray atomizer employed. The droplet size measurements were carried out at three radial locations and one axial location for various air and liquid (water) flow rates. The acoustic signals were recorded through two different sensors: accelerometers and microphones. The main objective of this work is to implement prediction models for the mean drop sizes (SMD) measured at various locations. The model prediction is based on the dimensionless number B, whose unique values correspond to different two-phase flow working conditions. This analysis will further cater to the question that whether the acoustics chemometrics approach, including Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS-R), is suitable for extracting valuable information such as predicting mean drop size (SMD) in two-phase flows through recorded acoustic signals.