In-Depth System-Level Energy Analysis of Hybrid Electrified Commuter Aircraft for Improved Energy Efficiency


  • Dimitra Eirini Diamantidou
  • Valentina Zaccaria
  • Anestis Kalfas



System-level analysis, Electrified aircraft, Energy efficiency, Mission performance


This work presents a comprehensive analysis of hybrid electric propulsion systems in commuter aircraft, aimed at enhancing energy efficiency. The study utilizes an aircraft conceptual design library, OpenConcept, to perform evaluations of various aircraft components and their interrelationships. The methodology integrates aerodynamics, propulsion, and mission analysis within a common framework to optimize the aircraft design. The analysis focuses on a 19-passenger commuter aircraft, employing a series/parallel hybrid-electric architecture. The gradient-based Sequential Least Squares Programming optimizer is utilized to optimize design variables such as battery weight, engine power, and the selected power ratios, while adhering to operational constraints. Through a rigorous Design of Experiments study, the paper highlights that even when considering the current battery technology, hybrid-electric propulsion yields substantial energy savings for short-haul missions. The fuel and energy consumption reductions are evident, particularly for shorter ranges. However, for extended missions, the critical role of advanced battery energy density is emphasized to achieve significant energy efficiency improvements.