Training Effectiveness Factors Associated with Laypeople Hemorrhage Control Training

A Systematic Literature Review


  • Marc Friberg Katastrofmedicinskt Centrum, och Institutionen för Biomedicinska och Kliniska Vetenskaper, LiU
  • Wilhelm Brodin Institutionen för Datavetenskap, Linköpings universitet
  • Lukas Arkestål Katastrofmedicinskt Centrum, Region Östergötland
  • Carl-Oscar Jonson Katastrofmedicinskt Centrum, och Institutionen för Biomedicinska och Kliniska Vetenskaper, LiU
  • Erik Prytz Institutionen för Datavetenskap, Linköpings universitet




Hemorrhage control initiated by laypeople, or immediate responders, can be a crucial link for increased survival among victims with hemorrhage. An increased interest in hemorrhage control training for laypeople have resulted in numerous publications in the area, showing that training laypeople in hemorrhage control can be successful (Nichols & Horstman, 2022; Tang et al., 2022). To this date, it is unknown which training factors are associated with successful training outcomes and to what extent. The objective of this study is to review and analyze past and present literature on hemorrhage control training for laypeople, in order to highlight current knowledge gaps, and direct future research.


A systematic literature review was performed by reviewing and analyzing the literature. Five electronic databases, CINAHL, Embase, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science, were used in the literature search. Search keywords were chosen among the variations and synonyms to the words: “laypeople” AND “hemorrhage” AND “training” AND “stop the bleed”. To examine where the knowledge gaps exist in terms of training effectiveness, a theoretical model by Cannon-Bowers et al. (1995) was chosen as theoretical lens, and each record was categorized into six training outcome categories: reactions, attitude change, learning, training performance, job performance, and results/organizational effectiveness, according to the content of the reviewed studies.

Preliminary results

In total, 2962 records were initially identified for screening, and 1186 records were kept after duplicate removal and deletion of incomplete records. After title and abstract review, 186 records were sought for retrieval. This will be further reduced into a fewer number of records for full text review after additional screening. By categorizing the records into the six training outcome categories, previous research efforts can be highlighted, as well as it creates an opportunity for future research suggestions.


By equipping the public with the necessary knowledge and tools for hemorrhage control, lives can be saved. By examining the literature on hemorrhage control training effectiveness, suggestions for future research and educational practice can be made.